Phaininda , episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence. They all appear to have resembled rugby football , wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD. The Cambridge Rules , first drawn up at Cambridge University in , were particularly influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football.
They were not universally adopted. During the s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football.
Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club , formed by former public school pupils in ,  which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in The Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which eventually produced the first comprehensive set of rules.
At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath , withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in formed the Rugby Football Union.
The eleven remaining clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer Cobb Morley , went on to ratify the original thirteen laws of the game. The Sheffield FA played by its own rules until the s with the FA absorbing some of its rules until there was little difference between the games.
The world's oldest football competition is the FA Cup , which was founded by C. Alcock and has been contested by English teams since The first official international football match also took place in , between Scotland and England in Glasgow , again at the instigation of C.
England is also home to the world's first football league , which was founded in Birmingham in by Aston Villa director William McGregor. FIFA , the international football body, was formed in Paris in and declared that they would adhere to Laws of the Game of the Football Association. The board consists of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from each of the four British associations.
Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world. Millions of people regularly go to football stadiums to follow their favourite teams,  while billions more watch the game on television or on the internet. According to a survey conducted by FIFA published in , over million people from more than countries regularly play football.
In many parts of the world football evokes great passions and plays an important role in the life of individual fans , local communities, and even nations. Kapuscinski says that Europeans who are polite, modest, or humble fall easily into rage when playing or watching football games.
Women may have been playing "football" for as long as the game has existed. Association football, the modern game, also has documented early involvement of women. An annual competition in Mid-Lothian, Scotland during the s is reported, too. In England, the first recorded game of football between women took place in The most well-documented early European team was founded by activist Nettie Honeyball in England in It was named the British Ladies' Football Club.
Nettie Honeyball is quoted, "I founded the association late last year , with the fixed resolve of proving to the world that women are not the 'ornamental and useless' creatures men have pictured.
I must confess, my convictions on all matters where the sexes are so widely divided are all on the side of emancipation , and I look forward to the time when ladies may sit in Parliament and have a voice in the direction of affairs, especially those which concern them most.
However, the women's game was frowned upon by the British football associations, and continued without their support.
It has been suggested that this was motivated by a perceived threat to the 'masculinity' of the game. Women's football became popular on a large scale at the time of the First World War , when employment in heavy industry spurred the growth of the game, much as it had done for men fifty years earlier. The team played in the first women's international matches in , against a team from Paris , France, in April, and also made up most of the England team against a Scottish Ladies XI in , and winning Despite being more popular than some men's football events one match saw a 53, strong crowd ,  women's football in England suffered a blow in when The Football Association outlawed the playing of the game on Association members' pitches, on the grounds that the game as played by women was distasteful.
Association football has been played by women since at least the time of the first recorded women's games in the late 19th century.
The growth in women's football has seen major competitions being launched at both national and international level mirroring the male competitions.
Women's football has faced many struggles. It had a "golden age" in the United Kingdom in the early s when crowds reached 50, at some matches;  this was stopped on 5 December when England's Football Association voted to ban the game from grounds used by its member clubs.
Association football is played in accordance with a set of rules known as the Laws of the Game. Two teams of eleven players each compete to get the ball into the other team's goal between the posts and under the bar , thereby scoring a goal. The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner; if both teams have scored an equal number of goals then the game is a draw. Each team is led by a captain who has only one official responsibility as mandated by the Laws of the Game: The primary law is that players other than goalkeepers may not deliberately handle the ball with their hands or arms during play, though they must use both their hands during a throw-in restart.
Although players usually use their feet to move the ball around they may use any part of their body notably, "heading" with the forehead  other than their hands or arms. During gameplay, players attempt to create goal-scoring opportunities through individual control of the ball, such as by dribbling , passing the ball to a teammate, and by taking shots at the goal, which is guarded by the opposing goalkeeper.
Opposing players may try to regain control of the ball by intercepting a pass or through tackling the opponent in possession of the ball; however, physical contact between opponents is restricted. Football is generally a free-flowing game, with play stopping only when the ball has left the field of play or when play is stopped by the referee for an infringement of the rules.
After a stoppage, play recommences with a specified restart. At a professional level, most matches produce only a few goals. For example, the —06 season of the English Premier League produced an average of 2.
Broadly, these include three main categories: Players in these positions are referred to as outfield players, to distinguish them from the goalkeeper. These positions are further subdivided according to the area of the field in which the player spends most time.
For example, there are central defenders, and left and right midfielders. The ten outfield players may be arranged in any combination. The number of players in each position determines the style of the team's play; more forwards and fewer defenders creates a more aggressive and offensive-minded game, while the reverse creates a slower, more defensive style of play.
While players typically spend most of the game in a specific position, there are few restrictions on player movement, and players can switch positions at any time. Defining the team's formation and tactics is usually the prerogative of the team's manager. There are 17 laws in the official Laws of the Game, each containing a collection of stipulation and guidelines. The same laws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors, women and people with physical disabilities are permitted.
The laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players excluding substitutes , one of whom must be the goalkeeper. Competition rules may state a minimum number of players required to constitute a team, which is usually seven. Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to play the ball with their hands or arms, provided they do so within the penalty area in front of their own goal.
Though there are a variety of positions in which the outfield non-goalkeeper players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions are not defined or required by the Laws. The basic equipment or kit players are required to wear includes a shirt, shorts, socks, footwear and adequate shin guards. An athletic supporter and protective cup is highly recommended for male players by medical experts and professionals. The goalkeeper must wear clothing that is easily distinguishable from that worn by the other players and the match officials.
A number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. The maximum number of substitutions permitted in most competitive international and domestic league games is three in ninety minutes with each team being allowed one more if the game should go into extra-time, though the permitted number may vary in other competitions or in friendly matches.
Common reasons for a substitution include injury, tiredness, ineffectiveness, a tactical switch, or timewasting at the end of a finely poised game. In standard adult matches, a player who has been substituted may not take further part in a match. A game is officiated by a referee , who has "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" Law 5 , and whose decisions are final. The referee is assisted by two assistant referees.
In many high-level games there is also a fourth official who assists the referee and may replace another official should the need arise. Goal line technology is used to measure if the whole ball has crossed the goal-line thereby determining if a goal has or hasn't been scored, this was brought in to prevent there being controversy. Video assistant referee VAR has also been increasingly introduced to assist officials through video replay to correct clear and obvious mistakes. There are four types of calls that can be reviewed: In the past the ball was made up of leather panels sewn together, with a latex bladder for pressurisation but modern balls at all levels of the game are now synthetic.
As the Laws were formulated in England, and were initially administered solely by the four British football associations within IFAB , the standard dimensions of a football pitch were originally expressed in imperial units. The Laws now express dimensions with approximate metric equivalents followed by traditional units in brackets , though use of imperial units remains popular in English-speaking countries with a relatively recent history of metrication or only partial metrication , such as Britain.
The longer boundary lines are touchlines , while the shorter boundaries on which the goals are placed are goal lines. A rectangular goal is positioned at the middle of each goal line. Nets are usually placed behind the goal, but are not required by the Laws. In front of the goal is the penalty area. This area is marked by the goal line, two lines starting on the goal line This area has a number of functions, the most prominent being to mark where the goalkeeper may handle the ball and where a penalty foul by a member of the defending team becomes punishable by a penalty kick.
Other markings define the position of the ball or players at kick-offs , goal kicks, penalty kicks and corner kicks. A standard adult football match consists of two halves of 45 minutes each. Each half runs continuously, meaning that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play.
There is usually a minute half-time break between halves. The end of the match is known as full-time. This added time is called additional time in FIFA documents,   but is most commonly referred to as stoppage time or injury time , while loss time can also be used as a synonym.
The duration of stoppage time is at the sole discretion of the referee. Stoppage time does not fully compensate for the time in which the ball is out of play , and a minute game typically involves about an hour of "effective playing time".
In matches where a fourth official is appointed, towards the end of the half the referee signals how many minutes of stoppage time he intends to add. The fourth official then informs the players and spectators by holding up a board showing this number. The signalled stoppage time may be further extended by the referee.
Trailing 1—0 and with just two minutes remaining, Stoke were awarded a penalty. In league competitions, games may end in a draw. In knockout competitions where a winner is required various methods may be employed to break such a deadlock; some competitions may invoke replays. If the score is still tied after extra time, some competitions allow the use of penalty shootouts known officially in the Laws of the Game as "kicks from the penalty mark" to determine which team will progress to the next stage of the tournament.
Goals scored during extra time periods count towards the final score of the game, but kicks from the penalty mark are only used to decide the team that progresses to the next part of the tournament with goals scored in a penalty shootout not making up part of the final score.
In competitions using two-legged matches , each team competes at home once, with an aggregate score from the two matches deciding which team progresses.
Where aggregates are equal, the away goals rule may be used to determine the winners, in which case the winner is the team that scored the most goals in the leg they played away from home. If the result is still equal, extra time and potentially a penalty shootout are required.
In the late s and early s, the IFAB experimented with ways of creating a winner without requiring a penalty shootout, which was often seen as an undesirable way to end a match.
These involved rules ending a game in extra time early, either when the first goal in extra time was scored golden goal , or if one team held a lead at the end of the first period of extra time silver goal.
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