In Northern Europe , the games of hurling Ireland and Knattleikr Iceland , both team balls games involving sticks to drive a ball to the opponents' goal, date at least as far back as the Early Middle Ages. By the 12th century, a team ball game called la soule or choule , akin to a chaotic and sometimes long-distance version of hockey or rugby football depending on whether sticks were used in a particular local variant , was regularly played in France and southern Britain between villages or parishes.
Throughout the Middle Ages to the Early Modern era , such games often involved the local clergy or secular aristocracy , and in some periods were limited to them by various anti-gaming edicts, or even banned altogether. The word hockey itself has no clear origin. It may be recalled at this point that baculum is the Latin for 'stick', so the reference would appear to be to a game played with sticks.
The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in , and the word 'hockey' remains of unknown origin. The modern game grew from English public schools in the early 19th century.
The first club was in at Blackheath in south-east London , but the modern rules grew out of a version played by Middlesex cricket clubs for winter game. The first international competition took place in Ireland 3, Wales 0 , and the International Rules Board was founded in Field hockey was played at the Summer Olympics in and Men's hockey united under the FIH in The two oldest trophies are the Irish Senior Cup , which dates back to , and the Irish Junior Cup , a second XI-only competition [ clarification needed ] instituted in Pakistan won in , and In the early s, artificial turf began to be used.
Synthetic pitches changed most aspects of field hockey, gaining speed. New tactics and techniques such as the Indian dribble developed, followed by new rules to take account. The switch to synthetic surfaces ended Indian and Pakistani domination because artificial turf was too expensive in developing countries. Women's field hockey was first played at British universities and schools. The first club, the Molesey Ladies, was founded in These tournaments were non-competitive until Discussions started about a common rule book.
It took until for the two bodies to merge, but this allowed the introduction of women's field hockey to the Olympic games from where, as in the men's game, The Netherlands, Germany, and Australia have been consistently strong. Argentina has emerged as a team to be reckoned with since , winning the world championship in and and medals at the last three Olympics.
Outside North America, participation is now fairly evenly balanced between men and women. For example, in England, England Hockey reports that as of the —09 season there were registered men's teams, women's teams, boys' teams, girls' teams and mixed teams. The strength of college field hockey reflects the impact of Title IX which mandated that colleges should fund men's and women's games programmes comparably. The game's roots in the English public girls' school mean that the game is associated in the UK with active or overachieving middle class and upper class women.
For example, in Nineteen Eighty-Four , George Orwell 's novel set in a totalitarian London, main character Winston Smith initially dislikes Julia, the woman he comes to love, because of "the atmosphere of hockey-fields and cold baths and community hikes and general clean-mindedness which she managed to carry about with her.
The game of field hockey is also very present in the United States. Many high schools and colleges in the U. It recent years however it has become increasingly present on the West Coast and in the Midwest. Field hockey is still not played much in the Southern states of the U. Most hockey field dimensions were originally fixed using whole numbers of imperial measures.
The pitch is a At each end is a goal 2. Historically the game developed on natural grass turf. In the early s, " synthetic grass " fields began to be used for hockey, with the first Olympic Games on this surface being held at Montreal in Synthetic pitches are now mandatory for all international tournaments and for most national competitions. While hockey is still played on traditional grass fields at some local levels and lesser national divisions, it has been replaced by synthetic surfaces almost everywhere in the western world.
There are three main types of artificial hockey surface: Since the s, sand-based pitches have been favoured as they dramatically speed up the game. However, in recent years there has been a massive increase in the number of "water-based" artificial turfs.
Water-based synthetic turfs enable the ball to be transferred more quickly than on sand-based surfaces. It is this characteristic that has made them the surface of choice for international and national league competitions.
Water-based surfaces are also less abrasive than sand-based surfaces and reduce the level of injury to players when they come into contact with the surface. The FIH are now [ when? This is due to the negative ecological effects of the high water requirements of water-based synthetic fields. It has also been stated that the decision to make artificial surfaces mandatory greatly favoured more affluent countries who could afford these new pitches.
The game is played between two teams of whom eleven are permitted to be on the pitch at any one time. The remaining players may be substituted in any combination. There is an unlimited number of times a team can sub in and out. Substitutions are permitted at any point in the game, apart from between the award and end of a penalty corner; two exceptions to this rule is for injury or suspension of the defending goalkeeper, which is not allowed when playing with a field keep, or a player can exit the field, but you must wait until after the inserter touches the ball to put somebody back in.
Players are permitted to play the ball with the flat of the 'face side' and with the edges of the head and handle of the field hockey stick with the exception that, for reasons of safety, the ball may not be struck 'hard' with a forehand edge stroke, because of the difficulty of controlling the height and direction of the ball from that stroke.
The flat side is always on the "natural" side for a right-handed person swinging the stick at the ball from right to left. Left-handed sticks are rare, but available; however they are pointless as the rules forbid their use in a game. To make a strike at the ball with a left-to-right swing the player must present the flat of the 'face' of the stick to the ball by 'reversing' the stick head, i.
Edge hitting of the ball underwent a two-year "experimental period", twice the usual length of an "experimental trial" and is still a matter of some controversy within the game. Ric Charlesworth, the former Australian coach, has been a strong critic of the unrestricted use of the reverse edge hit.
The 'hard' forehand edge hit was banned after similar concerns were expressed about the ability of players to direct the ball accurately, but the reverse edge hit does appear to be more predictable and controllable than its counterpart. This type of hit is now more commonly referred to as the "forehand sweep" where the ball is hit with the flat side or "natural" side of the stick and not the rounded edge.
Other rules include; no foot-to-ball contact, no use of hands, no obstructing other players, no high back swing, and no third party. If a player is dribbling the ball and either loses control and kicks the ball or another player interferes that player is not permitted to gain control and continue dribbling.
The rules do not allow the person who kicked the ball to gain advantage from the kick, so the ball will automatically be passed on to the opposing team.
Conversely, if no advantage is gained from kicking the ball, play should continue. Players may not obstruct another's chance of hitting the ball in any way. Penalty for this is the opposing team receives the ball and if the problem continues, the player can be carded. While a player is taking a free hit or starting a corner the back swing of their hit cannot be too high for this is considered dangerous.
Finally there may not be three players touching the ball at one time. Two players from opposing teams can battle for the ball, however if another player interferes it is considered third party and the ball automatically goes to the team who only had one player involved in the third party.
A match ordinarily consists of two periods of 35 minutes and a halftime interval of 5 minutes. Other periods and interval may be agreed by both teams except as specified in Regulations for particular competitions. At the Commonwealth Games Held on the Gold Coast in Brisbane, Australia the hockey games for both men and women had four 15 minute quarters. The game begins with a pass back from the centre-forward usually to the centre-half back from the halfway line, the opposing team can not try to tackle this play until the ball has been pushed back.
The team consists of eleven players, the players are usually set up as follows: These positions can change and adapt throughout the course of the game depending on the attacking and defensive style of the opposition. When hockey positions are discussed, notions of fluidity are very common. Each team can be fielded with a maximum of 11 players and will typically arrange themselves into forwards, midfielders, and defensive players fullbacks with players frequently moving between these lines with the flow of play.
Each team may also play with:. As hockey has a very dynamic style of play, it is difficult to simplify positions to the static formations which are common in football. For example, it is not uncommon to see a halfback overlap and end up in either attacking position, with the midfield and strikers being responsible for re-adjusting to fill the space they left. Movement between lines like this is particularly common across all positions.
This fluid Australian culture of hockey has been responsible for developing an international trend towards players occupying spaces on the field, not having assigned positions. Although they may have particular spaces on the field which they are more comfortable and effective as players, they are responsible for occupying the space nearest them.
This fluid approach to hockey and player movement has made it easy for teams to transition between formations such as; "3 at the back" , "2 centre halves" , "5 at the front", and more. When the ball is inside the circle they are defending and they have their stick in their hand, goalkeepers wearing full protective equipment are permitted to use their stick, feet, kickers or leg guards to propel the ball and to use their stick, feet, kickers, leg guards or any other part of their body to stop the ball or deflect it in any direction including over the back line.
Similarly, field players are permitted to use their stick. They are not allowed to use their feet and legs to propel the ball, stop the ball or deflect it in any direction including over the back line.
However, neither goalkeepers, or players with goalkeeping privileges are permitted to conduct themselves in a manner which is dangerous to other players by taking advantage of the protective equipment they wear. Neither goalkeepers or players with goalkeeping privileges may lie on the ball, however, they are permitted to use arms, hands and any other part of their body to push the ball away. Lying on the ball deliberately will result in a penalty stroke, whereas if an umpire deems a goalkeeper has lain on the ball accidentally e.
It does not permit a goalkeeper or player with goalkeeping privileges to propel the ball forcefully with arms, hands or body so that it travels a long distance. When the ball is outside the circle they are defending, goalkeepers or players with goalkeeping privileges are only permitted to play the ball with their stick.
Further, a goalkeeper, or player with goalkeeping privileges who is wearing a helmet, must not take part in the match outside the 23m area they are defending, except when taking a penalty stroke. A goalkeeper must wear protective headgear at all times, except when taking a penalty stroke. For the purposes of the rules, all players on the team in possession of the ball are attackers, and those on the team without the ball are defenders, yet throughout the game being played you are always "defending" your goal and "attacking" the opposite goal.
The match is officiated by two field umpires. Traditionally each umpire generally controls half of the field, divided roughly diagonally. These umpires are often assisted by a technical bench including a timekeeper and record keeper. Prior to the start of the game, a coin is tossed and the winning captain can choose a starting end or whether to start with the ball. Since the game consists of four periods of 15 minutes with a 2-minute break after every period, and a minute break at half time before changing ends.
At the start of each period, as well as after goals are scored, play is started with a pass from the centre of the field. All players must start in their defensive half apart from the player making the pass , but the ball may be played in any direction along the floor. Each team starts with the ball in one half, and the team that conceded the goal has possession for the restart. Teams trade sides at halftime.
Field players may only play the ball with the face of the stick. If the back side of the stick is used, it is a penalty and the other team will get the ball back.
Tackling is permitted as long as the tackler does not make contact with the attacker or the other person's stick before playing the ball contact after the tackle may also be penalized if the tackle was made from a position where contact was inevitable. Further, the player with the ball may not deliberately use his body to push a defender out of the way. Field players may not play the ball with their feet, but if the ball accidentally hits the feet, and the player gains no benefit from the contact, then the contact is not penalized.
Although there has been a change in the wording of this rule from 1 January , the current FIH umpires' briefing instructs umpires not to change the way they interpret this rule. Everyone knows this is nowhere. May 13, Messages: Welcome to the best position on the pitch Get in a space nice and wide and start shouting for the ball. You'll probably see quite a lot of it as it's easier for lazy defenders and midfielders to pass left than right. Look for nice easy passes to 'give and go' with your central midfielder, or thread some passes through to the strikers and follow them up to give them an option to drop back if they need to.
Oh yeah, and make some runs to the back post when your team's attacking, you're bound to pick up a couple of tap-ins there. Oct 19, Messages: Generally, in my part of the world the teams attack down the right, before sending a base line pass to the left wing on the post for the deflection. So your advice to the OP is 'stand on the post'? Mar 18, Messages: Mar 24, Messages: I am also a budding left wing, are there any sites that could perhaps give a more "graphic" orientated explanation?
The center back, right back, and left back should be readjusting as a unit according to where the ball is moving on the field. They should staggered on a diagonal line so as to not be caught in a flat line and risk being beat simultaneously. For example, when an opponent is dribbling down the field on your right side, the right defender closest to the ball will step up to put pressure on that player.
The center defender will remain in the center of the field but will be a few steps behind the line of the right defender. The left defender furthest from the ball will be staggered even further behind the center defender.
If the ball moves from one side to the other, the whole defensive line moves like a teeter totter. This allows for the other two defenders behind to be back-up support in case the first defender gets beat.
Always be ready on defense. Even if the action is far away and you feel like you have nothing to do defensively, you should always be checked into the game and adjusting your position, both laterally and vertically. That way, if something unexpected happens and the other team has a counterattack, you are already in position and ready to defend. This allows you to pass to them easily and move the ball up the field along the sidelines.
Know your marking strategy. Marking helps protect your defensive zone of the field by covering space or opposing players to keeping them from scoring.
The two main types of marking techniques are zone and man-to-man, and many teams use a mix of both depending on the situation. For example, the right back is responsible for the back right corner of the field. Any opposing player who enters that space is their responsibility. Man-to-man marking means each player chooses an opponent to mark and always sticks with them, no matter where they go on the field. This marking strategy is best when gameplay is past-paced and confined near the goal you are defending because it limits confusion on who is marking whom amidst potential chaos.
Every single opponent who enters your defensive circle surrounding the goal should be closely marked at all times. Make it clear to your team especially the midfielders that they should be helping out with marking as well. Even your forwards should be sprinting back during a counterattack. Place yourself on the correct side of your mark according to the situation. Sometimes it is best to step in front of your mark to block her from receiving a pass and intercept it yourself. Other times it is better to stay close behind your mark in between her and the goal so that even if she receives the ball she cannot go straight to goal.
Deciding the best way to position yourself while marking should come naturally as you assess each scenario. When in doubt, ask your coach for advice. Communicate to your teammates about who they should be marking. In a clear, loud voice, direct your teammates in front of you on where to position themselves and tell them to mark up if they are not doing so already. Force or channel them to one side of the field.
When someone is dribbling toward you, always force them toward the sidelines. Note the left side players do not want to take this approach and instead want to force them to their left side, toward the sideline.
Position your body slightly to the left so that your shoulders are open toward the right. Use the sideline or another defender to help you trap them into a small space. If you are running neck-and-neck with your opponent who is dribbling the ball, keep forcing her to one side. This is called shadowing her down the field. Try as hard as you can to keep running at the same speed as her and keep her from cutting you off. One of your other teammates will likely come to your help and you can double-team her together.
Jab at the ball. Jabbing is when you quickly poke at the ball with your stick when your opponent is dribbling to make them mess up or lose the ball. Be sure you are not too close to your opponent. Position yourself about a stick-length away from her. Reposition your grip on the stick as if you were holding a frying pan with your left hand. In one fluid motion, release your right hand from the stick and extend your left arm holding to stick while simultaneously lunging toward the ball so that the toe of your stick hits the ball.